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Note 6 Personnel expenses

Personnel expenses
Year Ended 31 December
EUR million 2017 2016
Wages and salaries 999 1 006
Pensions (see below) 166 165
Share-based remuneration (Note 21 ) 10 6
Total return swaps -2 -6
Other statutory employer costs 136 141
Other voluntary costs 22 22
Total 1 331 1 334
Year Ended 31 December
EUR million 2017 2016
Defined benefit plans 13 12
Defined contribution plans 153 153
Total 166 165

The average number of employees in 2017 amounted to 26 206 compared with 26 269 in 2016. Pension costs are discussed further in Note 20 Post-employment benefits.

In 2017, the expense of the share-based remuneration was EUR 10 (EUR 6) million. The expense of share-based remuneration net of Total Return Swaps (TRS) in 2017 amounted to EUR 8 (0) million. This was due to the increase in the Stora Enso R share price from EUR 10.21 at 31 December 2016 to EUR 13.22 by 31 December 2017 and an income of EUR 2 (EUR 6) million was recorded in respect to TRS.

The Group may hedge its share awards programme by using (TRS) shown under personnel costs alongside the share awards expenses they relate to, so that both the risk and the result from the hedging of that risk appear in the same section of the Income Statement. The TRS are not designated under hedge accounting.

Share-based remuneration comprising of share awards and related hedges are described in more detail in Note 21 Employee variable compensation and equity incentive schemes.

Remuneration of the Group Leadership Team and Board are described in Note 7 Board and executive remuneration.

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