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Note 6 Personnel expenses
Personnel expenses
Year Ended 31 December
EUR million 2016 2015
Wages and salaries 1 006 987
Pensions (see below) 165 160
Share-based remuneration (Note 21 ) 6 8
Total return swaps -6 -4
Other statutory employer costs 141 140
Other voluntary costs 22 22
Total 1 334 1 313
Year Ended 31 December
EUR million 2016 2015
Defined benefit plans 12 12
Defined contribution plans 153 150
Other post-employment benefits - -2
Total 165 160
Total personnel expenses totalled EUR 1 334 million in 2016 compared with EUR 1 313 million in 2015. The average number of employees in 2016 amounted to 26 269 compared with 26 783 in 2015. Pension costs are discussed further in Note 20 Post-employment benefits.

In 2016, the expense of the share-based remuneration was EUR 6 (EUR 8) million. The expense of share-based remuneration net of Total Return Swaps (TRS) in 2016 amounted to zero compared with an expense of EUR 4 million in 2015. This was due to the increase in the Stora Enso R share price from EUR 8.39 at 31 December 2015 to EUR 10.21 at 31 December 2016 and an income of EUR 6 million was recorded in respect of TRS.

The group hedges its share awards programme by using (TRS) shown under personnel costs alongside the share awards expenses to which they relate, so that both the risk and the result from hedging of that risk appear in the same section of the Income Statement. The TRS are not designated under hedge accounting.

Share-based remuneration comprising of share awards and related hedges are described in more detail in Note 21 Employee variable compensation and equity incentive schemes.

Group Leadership Team and Board remuneration are described in Note 7 Board and executive remuneration.

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